What follows is a hypothetical example of a research paper based on an experiment. If you avoid all those, your paper should be in good shape. The Results section is typically fairly straightforward and factual. All results that relate to the research question should how to write a scientific research paper example be given in detail, including simple counts and percentages. Resist the temptation to demonstrate analytic ability and the richness of the dataset by providing numerous tables of non-essential results. Provide each axis with a brief but informative title .

Which is not an example of academic writing?

Non academic writing focuses on lay audience or the mass public. These types of articles are mostly personal, impressionistic, emotional, or subjective in nature. It includes magazine articles, personal or business letters, novels, websites, text messages, etc. are some examples of non academic writing.

However, editors hate improper citations of too many references irrelevant to the work, or inappropriate judgments on your own achievements. You should provide a clear scientific justification for your work in this section, and indicate uses and extensions if appropriate. Moreover, you can suggest future experiments and point out those that are underway. Probably it is the easiest section to write, but the hardest section to get right.

Writing The Scientific Paper

LITERATURE CITED. This section is sometimes called “References Cited”. Here one provides full citations for all works mentioned in the body of the paper and only those works mentioned in the paper. Every research paper follows one or another bibliographic style. Check with professors to learn the style, or apply a digital style editor, and use it consistently for all citations.

how to write a scientific research paper example

Little things—such as flow, structure, voice, and word choice—will connect your story, polish your paper, and make it enjoyable to read. Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference narrative essay definition should be indented . See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.

Journal List Menu

State your specific hypothesis or objective, and describe the reasoning that led you to select them. Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. Degree Research Paper in this department is written about research that is currently being planned or is in progress. In those circumstances, sometimes only an Introduction and Methods section, followed by References, is included . In other cases, preliminary results are presented and noted as such in the Results section , and the Discussion section includes caveats about the in-progress nature of the research.

Come back to your paper and verify that it still expresses what you intended to say. Where is the writing awkward, making it difficult to understand your point? Consider reading the paper out loud first, and then print and edit a hard copy to inspect the paper from different angles. No matter how many boards you stack on top of each other, you still need nails to prevent the pile from falling apart.


This article was supported by a Science Education Partnership Award grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Students must take great care and effort to write a good Methods section because it is an essential component of the effective communication of scientific findings. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. “I would never use a long word where a short one would answer the purpose. I know there are professors in this country who ‘ligate’ arteries. Other surgeons tie them, and it stops the bleeding just as well.” It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaini ng the necessary concepts.

  • Scientific writing, while an indispensable step of the scientific process, is often overlooked in undergraduate courses in favor of maximizing class time devoted to scientific concepts.
  • However, do not repeat the details of established methods; use References and Supporting Materials to indicate the previously published procedures.
  • Commas are used in the middle of the title and quotation marks are used only for a part of the title, not the entire title.
  • Is your system, study organism, or site a good representation of a more generalized pattern?

This is because it is the most important section of your article. Take into account that a huge numbers of manuscripts are rejected because the Discussion is weak. An important issue is that you must not include references in this section; you are presenting your results, so you cannot refer to others here. If you refer to others, is because you are discussing your results, and this must be included in the Discussion section.


If use of a specific type of equipment, a specific enzyme, or a culture from a particular supplier is critical to the success of the experiment, then it and the source should be singled out, otherwise no. Very briefy describe the experimental design and how it accomplished the stated objectives. For Biosciences majors the general guidelines apply to future course work, as can be seen by examining the guidelines for the advanced experimental sciences research paper . Graphs and data – depending on the type of research being performed, there may be Tables and/or Figures . In APA style, each Table and each Figure is placed on a separate page and all Tables and Figures are included after the References. – a section which describes the data that was collected and the results of any statistical tests that were performed. It may also be prefaced by a description of the analysis procedure that was used.

how to write a scientific research paper example

By focusing on the data and leaving out any interpretation of the results in this section, you will provide the reader with the tools necessary to objectively evaluate your findings. In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one how to write a scientific research paper example section for each hypothesis. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth.

Writing A Results Section

This is accomplished by briefly reviewing some of the relevant literature and explaining how the current project is related to the existing body of work. Interpretations made earlier and now known to be incorrect are disqualified here as well. This is also the time to describe the goals and objectives of the study, e.g., to test certain hypotheses or answer a set of questions. Then, the experiments to be done are described and the results entered.

Such an effort can be maximized by following a few simple suggestions when composing/creating the product for submission. By following some suggested guidelines and avoiding common errors, the process can be streamlined and success realized for even beginning/novice authors as they negotiate the publication process.

About This Guide

– the first page of the paper; this includes the name of the paper, a “running head”, authors, and institutional affiliation of the authors. The institutional affiliation is usually listed in an Author Note that is placed towards the bottom of the title page. In some cases, the Author Note also contains an acknowledgment of any funding support and of any individuals that assisted with the research project. Only use a figure when the data lend themselves to a good visual representation. Avoid using figures that show too many variables or trends at once, because they can be hard to understand.

The purpose of this study was to test whether or not this preference for certain colors of leg bands generalizes to preference for certain colors of nesting material. It was hypothesized that zebra finches would collect more red or black material than light green, with collection of orange being intermediate.

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